Jesus in the OT – Exodus 13-14

parting_seaWith the family away camping, looks like a good day to continue on with another post in this study series.  We’ll pick things back up with the Jews leaving their captivity under Egypt.  On their way out, God has a couple commands for them.

1 The Lord said to Moses, 2 “Consecrate to me all the firstborn. Whatever is the first to open the womb among the people of Israel, both of man and of beast, is mine.”

Exodus 13:1–2 (ESV)

The New Testament notes that Jesus Christ was consecrated as firstborn to fulfill this command, but not only that… Jesus Christ is the firstborn of all creation.

22 And when the time came for their purification according to the Law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the Law of the Lord, “Every male who first opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord”)

Luke 2:22–23 (ESV)

15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. 17 And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 And he is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in everything he might be preeminent. 19 For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross.

Colossians 1:15–20 (ESV)

The other command of note in Exodus 13 is that of the phylacteries to bind to their bodies to remind them of God’s Word and what He did for them.

8 You shall tell your son on that day, ‘It is because of what the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 9 And it shall be to you as a sign on your hand and as a memorial between your eyes, that the law of the Lord may be in your mouth. For with a strong hand the Lord has brought you out of Egypt.

Exodus 13:8–9 (ESV)

Matthew informs us that Jesus Christ pointed to the hypocrisy of the Pharisees in how they met this command.  They met it for show and missed the entire point.

1 Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples, 2 “The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, 3 so do and observe whatever they tell you, but not the works they do. For they preach, but do not practice. 4 They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on people’s shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to move them with their finger. 5 They do all their deeds to be seen by others. For they make their phylacteries broad and their fringes long,

Matthew 23:1–5 (ESV)

Moving on with Exodus, we find the Lord moving before the people in a pillar of cloud by day and fire by night.

21 And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them along the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might travel by day and by night. 22 The pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night did not depart from before the people.

Exodus 13:21–22 (ESV)

Paul points back to the cloud when describing Jesus Christ as the Rock in the wilderness (which we’ll get to later in Exodus).

1 For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, 2 and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 3 and all ate the same spiritual food, 4 and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ.

1 Corinthians 10:1–4 (ESV)

Since Jesus is identified with the Rock, it would seem then that the Holy Spirit is identified with the cloud, as Paul later points again to baptism of the Spirit in the same letter.  Jesus Christ and Paul also note how the Holy Spirit is the one who guides us.  Note also that as the pillar never left the Jews in the wilderness, Jesus tells us the Holy Spirit will never leave us.

13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.

1 Corinthians 12:13 (ESV)

14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.

Romans 8:14 (ESV)

16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, to be with you forever,

John 14:16 (ESV)

Continuing with Exodus 14, we soon find the Egyptians chasing down the Jews.  The people have been freed just days before and are already complaining they would rather be back under slavery.

10 When Pharaoh drew near, the people of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians were marching after them, and they feared greatly. And the people of Israel cried out to the Lord. 11 They said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness? What have you done to us in bringing us out of Egypt? 12 Is not this what we said to you in Egypt: ‘Leave us alone that we may serve the Egyptians’? For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.”

Exodus 14:10–12 (ESV)

As believers in Jesus Christ, we are told we will encounter much spiritual warfare against Satan, the world, and our own fleshly natures.  Paul reminded the Galatians to hold up under the pressure, holding fast to our freedom through Christ and not falling back under spiritual slavery.

1 For freedom Christ has set us free; stand firm therefore, and do not submit again to a yoke of slavery.

Galatians 5:1 (ESV)

In Exodus, Moses then tells the people God would fight Pharaoh for them, bringing them His salvation.

13 And Moses said to the people, “Fear not, stand firm, and see the salvation of the Lord, which he will work for you today. For the Egyptians whom you see today, you shall never see again. 14 The Lord will fight for you, and you have only to be silent.”

Exodus 14:13–14 (ESV)

In Revelation, we find that Jesus Christ will one day fight for His people, bringing them His salvation.

1 After this I heard what seemed to be the loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, crying out, “Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God, 2 for his judgments are true and just; for he has judged the great prostitute who corrupted the earth with her immorality, and has avenged on her the blood of his servants.” 11 Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. 12 His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems, and he has a name written that no one knows but himself. 13 He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. 14 And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. 15 From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. 16 On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords. 17 Then I saw an angel standing in the sun, and with a loud voice he called to all the birds that fly directly overhead, “Come, gather for the great supper of God, 18 to eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, both small and great.” 19 And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth with their armies gathered to make war against him who was sitting on the horse and against his army. 20 And the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who in its presence had done the signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped its image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur. 21 And the rest were slain by the sword that came from the mouth of him who was sitting on the horse, and all the birds were gorged with their flesh.

Revelation 19:1-2, 11–21 (ESV)

Next in Exodus, we find the “angel of God” moving behind the people.  As we’ve noted in previous studies, it’s possible this angel is a preincarnate appearance of Jesus Christ.

19 Then the angel of God who was going before the host of Israel moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them, 20 coming between the host of Egypt and the host of Israel. And there was the cloud and the darkness. And it lit up the night without one coming near the other all night.

Exodus 14:19–20 (ESV)

Finally in Exodus 14, we witness the people being saved by God through the sea.

21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the Lord drove the sea back by a strong east wind all night and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. 22 And the people of Israel went into the midst of the sea on dry ground, the waters being a wall to them on their right hand and on their left. 23 The Egyptians pursued and went in after them into the midst of the sea, all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. 24 And in the morning watch the Lord in the pillar of fire and of cloud looked down on the Egyptian forces and threw the Egyptian forces into a panic, 25 clogging their chariot wheels so that they drove heavily. And the Egyptians said, “Let us flee from before Israel, for the Lord fights for them against the Egyptians.” 26 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the water may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.” 27 So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its normal course when the morning appeared. And as the Egyptians fled into it, the Lord threw the Egyptians into the midst of the sea. 28 The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen; of all the host of Pharaoh that had followed them into the sea, not one of them remained. 29 But the people of Israel walked on dry ground through the sea, the waters being a wall to them on their right hand and on their left. 30 Thus the Lord saved Israel that day from the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore. 31 Israel saw the great power that the Lord used against the Egyptians, so the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in his servant Moses.

Exodus 14:21–31 (ESV)

Again, we look back to the passage of Paul’s letter to the Corinthians to see that this crossing of the sea by which the Jews were saved is a picture of our baptism and salvation through Jesus Christ.

1 For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, 2 and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 3 and all ate the same spiritual food, 4 and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ.

1 Corinthians 10:1–4 (ESV)

In summary, here is what we found today:

  • Exodus 13:1-2 – chiasmus – Jesus Christ fulfilled the Law, consecrated as firstborn to His earthly family, while He was in fact the firstborn of all creation
  • Exodus 13:8-9 – Jesus Christ uses God’s command to wear phylacteries to point out hypocrisy of the Pharisees
  • Exodus 13:21-22 – type/picture – pillar of cloud and fire represents the Holy Spirit, which Jesus Christ told us would guide us and never leave us
  • Exodus 14:10-12 – type/picture – as believers in Jesus Christ, we are to not fall back into spiritual slavery
  • Exodus 14:13-14 – type/picture – Jesus Christ will fight for His people, bringing them His salvation
  • Exodus 14:19-20 – appearance – perhaps the angle of God was a preincarnate appearance of Jesus Christ
  • Exodus 14:21-31 - type/picture – Red Sea crossing as a picture of our baptism and salvation through Jesus Christ

We’ll see you next time (when they are camping again? ;)

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Jesus in the OT – Exodus 12

passoverTime for another post in this series today.  Exodus 12 includes the instructions for the Passover night before the Jews were finally released from slavery.  As part of our study through Leviticus, I put together a more detailed deep-dive of the Passover feast which I’ll post on the blog when I happen to get that far… so for now, this will be a taste of how Jesus is found in this historical event.  Let’s get going.

1 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 2 “This month shall be for you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year for you. 3 Tell all the congregation of Israel that on the tenth day of this month every man shall take a lamb according to their fathers’ houses, a lamb for a household. 4 And if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his nearest neighbor shall take according to the number of persons; according to what each can eat you shall make your count for the lamb. 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male a year old. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats, 6 and you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month, when the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill their lambs at twilight.

Exodus 12:1–6 (ESV)

There are several items of note in this passage.  The first is that Passover would now mark a new year and beginning for the Jews.  When we are born again, our faith in Jesus Christ marks a new beginning for us… we are new creations.

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! According to his great mercy, he has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4 to an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you, 5 who by God’s power are being guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.

1 Peter 1:3–5 (ESV)

17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come.

2 Corinthians 5:17 (ESV)

The next thing of note is that the lamb chosen for Passover was to be without blemish.  Jesus was examined by several people upon being arrested, including Pilate, Herod, Annas and Caiaphas, and was found by them to be without blemish.  I won’t paste all the passages, but Luke provides a quick example.  Hebrews also makes it quite clear that Jesus Christ was unblemished/sinless.

4 Then Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, “I find no guilt in this man.”

Luke 23:4 (ESV)

15 For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin.

Hebrews 4:15 (ESV)

13 For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the sprinkling of defiled persons with the ashes of a heifer, sanctify for the purification of the flesh, 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to serve the living God.

Hebrews 9:13–14 (ESV)

We then find in the Exodus passage that the lamb chosen for Passover was to be sacrificed.  The New Testament informs us that Jesus Christ is our Passover lamb, sacrificed for us.

7 Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed.

1 Corinthians 5:7 (ESV)

We also find in the Exodus passage that everyone was required to participate in the sacrifice.  Paul reminds us that everyone must accept Jesus Christ’s sacrifice to be saved.

21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— 22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction: 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins. 26 It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

Romans 3:21–26 (ESV)

Finally in the Exodus passage, we find the lamb was to be sacrificed at twilight, which ESV notes point out is literally “between the two evenings.”  We find in the New Testament that Jesus Christ was sacrificed about 3pm in the midst of darkness over the land.

45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. 46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” 47 And some of the bystanders, hearing it, said, “This man is calling Elijah.” 48 And one of them at once ran and took a sponge, filled it with sour wine, and put it on a reed and gave it to him to drink. 49 But the others said, “Wait, let us see whether Elijah will come to save him.” 50 And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and yielded up his spirit.

Matthew 27:45–50 (ESV)

Continuing with the rest of Exodus 12, we next find that the blood of the Passover lamb was a sign to protect the Jews from judgment.

7 “Then they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which they eat it.

13 The blood shall be a sign for you, on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt.

22 Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. None of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning.

Exodus 12:7, 13, 22 (ESV)

The Romans 3 passage earlier noted that the blood of Jesus Christ is the propitiation for our sins, which is also pointed out in Revelation.

14 I said to him, “Sir, you know.” And he said to me, “These are the ones coming out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

Revelation 7:14 (ESV)

Back in Exodus, we find that the Passover meal was to include feasting on the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs.

8 They shall eat the flesh that night, roasted on the fire; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it.

Exodus 12:8 (ESV)

Jesus tells us in the New Testament that we must feed on Him.

53 So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. 54 Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 55 For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink.

John 6:53–55 (ESV)

As for the unleavened bread, Paul tells us that our lives in Christ are to be spiritually unleavened.  Jesus also warns us to beware of spiritually leavened teachings.

7 Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. 8 Let us therefore celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

1 Corinthians 5:7–8 (ESV)

5 When the disciples reached the other side, they had forgotten to bring any bread. 6 Jesus said to them, “Watch and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” 7 And they began discussing it among themselves, saying, “We brought no bread.” 8 But Jesus, aware of this, said, “O you of little faith, why are you discussing among yourselves the fact that you have no bread? 9 Do you not yet perceive? Do you not remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you gathered? 10 Or the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many baskets you gathered? 11 How is it that you fail to understand that I did not speak about bread? Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” 12 Then they understood that he did not tell them to beware of the leaven of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

Matthew 16:5–12 (ESV)

As for bitter herbs, which remind the Jews of the bitterness of life under slavery, we are reminded by Paul that even believers in Jesus Christ have bitter sufferings in this world.

18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us. 19 For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. 20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 21 that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. 22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. 23 And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 24 For in this hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience.

Romans 8:18–25 (ESV)

Continuing with Exodus, we find the Passover meal was to be eaten while being prepared for immediate travel.

11 In this manner you shall eat it: with your belt fastened, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. And you shall eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover.

Exodus 12:11 (ESV)

Jesus Christ warns us to always be ready for His second coming.

35 “Stay dressed for action and keep your lamps burning, 36 and be like men who are waiting for their master to come home from the wedding feast, so that they may open the door to him at once when he comes and knocks. 37 Blessed are those servants whom the master finds awake when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will dress himself for service and have them recline at table, and he will come and serve them. 38 If he comes in the second watch, or in the third, and finds them awake, blessed are those servants! 39 But know this, that if the master of the house had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have left his house to be broken into. 40 You also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.”

Luke 12:35–40 (ESV)

God next tells Moses that the Passover feast was to be kept in memorial forever of their being freed from slavery in Egypt.

14 “This day shall be for you a memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord; throughout your generations, as a statute forever, you shall keep it as a feast.

Exodus 12:14 (ESV)

Jesus Christ instituted the Lord’s Supper to be kept as a memorial of His freeing us from spiritual slavery until He comes again.

19 And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”

Luke 22:19 (ESV)

26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.

1 Corinthians 11:26 (ESV)

Next up in Exodus, we find the Jews being freed on a “night of watching.”

42 It was a night of watching by the Lord, to bring them out of the land of Egypt; so this same night is a night of watching kept to the Lord by all the people of Israel throughout their generations.

Exodus 12:42 (ESV)

Jesus’ description of His second coming sounds like a night of watching for us.

42 Therefore, stay awake, for you do not know on what day your Lord is coming. 43 But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and would not have let his house be broken into. 44 Therefore you also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.

Matthew 24:42–44 (ESV)

15 (“Behold, I am coming like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays awake, keeping his garments on, that he may not go about naked and be seen exposed!”)

Revelation 16:15 (ESV)

In Exodus, we then find the Passover lamb’s bones were not to be broken.

46 It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the flesh outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones.

Exodus 12:46 (ESV)

Jesus Christ’s bones were not broken on the cross, a fulfillment of the Passover pointed out clearly by John.

31 Since it was the day of Preparation, and so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away. 32 So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with him. 33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. 34 But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water. 35 He who saw it has borne witness—his testimony is true, and he knows that he is telling the truth—that you also may believe. 36 For these things took place that the Scripture might be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken.”

John 19:31–36 (ESV)

To conclude the Exodus chapter on the Passover, we find God bringing His people out of Egypt.

51 And on that very day the Lord brought the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts.

Exodus 12:51 (ESV)

In the New Testament, we are told that through His sacrifice on the cross, Jesus Christ set us free from spiritual slavery.

34 Jesus answered them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who practices sin is a slave to sin. 35 The slave does not remain in the house forever; the son remains forever. 36 So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed.

John 8:34–36 (ESV)

In fact, we even find Jude pointing right back to Jesus as the one bringing the people out of Egypt.

5 Now I want to remind you, although you once fully knew it, that Jesus, who saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe.

Jude 5 (ESV)

In summary, here is what we found today:

  • Exodus 12:1-2 – type/picture – faith in Jesus Christ marks a new beginning for believers
  • Exodus 12:3-6 – type/picture – Jesus Christ was examined and found to be our unblemished (sinless) Passover lamb, sacrificed “between the two evenings”
  • Exodus 12:6 – type/picture – everyone must accept Jesus Christ’s sacrifice to be saved
  • Exodus 12:7, 13, 22 – type/picture – the blood of Jesus Christ is the propitiation for our sins, protecting us from judgment
  • Exodus 12:8 – type/picture – Jesus’ flesh is true food we must feed on, our lives in Him are to be spiritually unleavened, and those lives will still be filled with bitter sufferings in this world
  • Exodus 12:11 – type/picture – Jesus Christ warns us to always be ready for His second coming
  • Exodus 12:14 – type/picture – Jesus Christ instituted the Lord’s Supper as a memorial until He comes again
  • Exodus 12:42 – type/picture – Jesus’ description of His second coming sounds like a “night of watching”
  • Exodus 12:46 – type/picture – Jesus Christ’s bones were not broken on the cross
  • Exodus 12:51 – type/picture – Jesus Christ sacrifice on the cross frees us from spiritual slavery

That’s it for today… catch you next time!

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Jesus in the OT – Exodus 7-11

plague_hailLet’s continue our study through the Old Testament with Exodus 7-11 tonight.  Starting with the first passage, we find God telling Moses that Pharaoh would demand proof he was God’s messenger through display of miracles.

8 Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Prove yourselves by working a miracle,’ then you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it may become a serpent.’ ” 10 So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did just as the Lord commanded. Aaron cast down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a serpent. 11 Then Pharaoh summoned the wise men and the sorcerers, and they, the magicians of Egypt, also did the same by their secret arts. 12 For each man cast down his staff, and they became serpents. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 13 Still Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the Lord had said.

Exodus 7:8–13 (ESV)

When we get to the New Testament, we find continued parallels between Moses and Jesus Christ with the Jews demanding miracles of Jesus to prove He was sent by God.

18 So the Jews said to him, “What sign do you show us for doing these things?”

John 2:18 (ESV)

30 So they said to him, “Then what sign do you do, that we may see and believe you? What work do you perform?

John 6:30 (ESV)

We’ll come back to the actual miracles Moses performed through the plagues at the end of this post.  For now, let’s move on to the next Old Testament passage, where we find the magicians unable to come close to duplicating the miracles.  They recognized such miracles could only come from the “finger of God.”

18 The magicians tried by their secret arts to produce gnats, but they could not. So there were gnats on man and beast. 19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God.” But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the Lord had said.

Exodus 8:18–19 (ESV)

And yet, Pharaoh still would not listen to them.  We find the same with Jesus Christ, as they would not believe in Him.  Jesus pointed out His miracles could only come from the finger of God.

14 Now he was casting out a demon that was mute. When the demon had gone out, the mute man spoke, and the people marveled. 15 But some of them said, “He casts out demons by Beelzebul, the prince of demons,” 16 while others, to test him, kept seeking from him a sign from heaven. 17 But he, knowing their thoughts, said to them, “Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and a divided household falls. 18 And if Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 19 And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges. 20 But if it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.

Luke 11:14–20 (ESV)

Next in Exodus, we find that God distinguishes between people in His divine judgments on those living in Egypt.

22 But on that day I will set apart the land of Goshen, where my people dwell, so that no swarms of flies shall be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth.

Exodus 8:22 (ESV)

At the second coming of Jesus Christ, He will separate people at His judgment.

31 “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. 32 Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.

Matthew 25:31–32 (ESV)

We also find that God will distinguish between people on earth during His divine judgments in Revelation.

3 Then from the smoke came locusts on the earth, and they were given power like the power of scorpions of the earth. 4 They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any green plant or any tree, but only those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads.

Revelation 9:3–4 (ESV)

We next find in Exodus that God continued to harden Pharaoh’s heart against the Israelites and God, using him to demonstrate God’s power.

13 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning and present yourself before Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Let my people go, that they may serve me. 14 For this time I will send all my plagues on you yourself, and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is none like me in all the earth. 15 For by now I could have put out my hand and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut off from the earth. 16 But for this purpose I have raised you up, to show you my power, so that my name may be proclaimed in all the earth. 17 You are still exalting yourself against my people and will not let them go.

Exodus 9:13–17 (ESV)

Paul uses this passage to remind us that God hardens hearts as He wills, and yet gives mercy to those He wills through Jesus Christ.

14 What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God’s part? By no means! 15 For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.” 16 So then it depends not on human will or exertion, but on God, who has mercy. 17 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, “For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” 18 So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.

Romans 9:14–18 (ESV)

Before wrapping up tonight’s study, I’ll simply list out the parallels we can see between the ten plagues in Egypt recorded in Exodus and those detailed in Revelation just before God’s plan of redemption is consummated in the return of Jesus Christ.  I’ll leave you the task of looking up the Scripture references yourself.  (I don’t remember where I got this list in my notes, but it may have been from the ESV Study Bible.  There are some very handy figures in there if you happen to have one.)

  • Exodus 7:17 – Nile into blood; Revelation 8:8, 16:3-4 – sea, rivers and springs into blood
  • Exodus 8:2 – frogs; Revelation 16:13-14 – not exactly a plague of frogs, but perhaps related
  • Exodus 8:16  – gnats/lice; Revelation – no counterpart?
  • Exodus 8:21 – flies; Revelation – no counterpart?
  • Exodus 9:3 – pestilence; Revelation 6:8 – pestilence
  • Exodus 9:9 – boils; Revelation 16:2 – sores
  • Exodus 9:18 – hail; Revelation 8:7 – hail
  • Exodus 10:4 – locusts; Revelation 9:3 – locusts
  • Exodus 10:21 – darkness; Revelation 8:12, 16:10-11 – darkness
  • Exodus 11:5 – firstborn dead; Revelation 19:19-21 – many people dead

Certainly the order is not the same, and it’s not a completely matched set.  However, God provided us with a historical witness to show He has no qualms with enacting divine judgments on some here on earth prior to delivering His own people.  He did it before freeing the Jews from enslavement under Egypt.  He will do it again before freeing those of us who believe in Jesus Christ from Satan, the world, and our own fleshly natures.

In summary, we found the following:

  • Exodus 7:8-13 – type/picture – Jews demanded miracles from Jesus Christ to prove He was sent by God
  • Exodus 8:18-19 – type/picture – yet some did not recognize Jesus’ miracles came from the “finger of God”
  • Exodus 8:22 – type/picture – Jesus Christ will separate people at the judgment; some will be protected during the Revelation judgments
  • Exodus 9:13-17 – type/picture – God hardens hearts as He wills and softens hearts as He wills, giving mercy through belief in Jesus Christ
  • Exodus 7-11 (chapters as a whole) – type/picture – Revelation judgments parallel the witness of God’s judgments in Exodus as He consummates His plan of redemption in Jesus Christ

Dare I call that a short one for today?  ;)  Catch you next time.

 

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Jesus in the OT – Exodus 5-6

jews_bondage_egyptTime for another post in the series.  Just as a reminder, you might refresh yourself with the first post in the series on Exodus where I started by listing out the different “parts” played in the typological drama played out in the book.  Whether you did that or not, let’s get going.

Exodus chapter 5 starts with an honest admission by Pharaoh as Moses returns to Egypt to deliver God’s people.

1 Afterward Moses and Aaron went and said to Pharaoh, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.’ ” 2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice and let Israel go? I do not know the Lord, and moreover, I will not let Israel go.”

Exodus 5:1–2 (ESV)

Pharaoh did not know God, and he was using it as an excuse to be disobedient.  The good news is that Jesus Christ reveals God to us so that we may know Him.

25 At that time Jesus declared, “I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to little children; 26 yes, Father, for such was your gracious will. 27 All things have been handed over to me by my Father, and no one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and anyone to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.

Matthew 11:25–27 (ESV)

18 No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known.

John 1:18 (ESV)

May we not make the same mistake Pharaoh did!

Back in Exodus, we find Pharaoh placing heavy burdens on the Jews after Moses and Aaron made an attempt to free them.

4 But the king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you take the people away from their work? Get back to your burdens.” 5 And Pharaoh said, “Behold, the people of the land are now many, and you make them rest from their burdens!” 6 The same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people and their foremen, 7 “You shall no longer give the people straw to make bricks, as in the past; let them go and gather straw for themselves. 8 But the number of bricks that they made in the past you shall impose on them, you shall by no means reduce it, for they are idle. Therefore they cry, ‘Let us go and offer sacrifice to our God.’ 9 Let heavier work be laid on the men that they may labor at it and pay no regard to lying words.”

Exodus 5:4–9 (ESV)

Jesus Christ came to free us from the heavy burdens we carry.

28 Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. 30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.”

Matthew 11:28–30 (ESV)

We find that while Pharaoh was placing the Jews under heavy physical burdens, the religious leaders of Jesus’ time were placing the people under heavy spiritual burdens.

1 Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples, 2 “The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, 3 so do and observe whatever they tell you, but not the works they do. For they preach, but do not practice. 4 They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on people’s shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to move them with their finger.

Matthew 23:1–4 (ESV)

In fact, Paul warns us false religious leaders would continue to tie us up with heavy burdens as well.

4 Yet because of false brothers secretly brought in—who slipped in to spy out our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, so that they might bring us into slavery— 5 to them we did not yield in submission even for a moment, so that the truth of the gospel might be preserved for you.

Galatians 2:4–5 (ESV)

May we rest in the finished work of Jesus Christ, not falling prey to such false teachers!

Continuing with Exodus, we see the Jews complaining about all the trouble Moses was causing for them.

20 They met Moses and Aaron, who were waiting for them, as they came out from Pharaoh; 21 and they said to them, “The Lord look on you and judge, because you have made us stink in the sight of Pharaoh and his servants, and have put a sword in their hand to kill us.”

Exodus 5:20–21 (ESV)

Some Jews complained about the trouble Jesus Christ was causing for them as well.

3 So his brothers said to him, “Leave here and go to Judea, that your disciples also may see the works you are doing. 4 For no one works in secret if he seeks to be known openly. If you do these things, show yourself to the world.” 5 For not even his brothers believed in him. 6 Jesus said to them, “My time has not yet come, but your time is always here. 7 The world cannot hate you, but it hates me because I testify about it that its works are evil. 8 You go up to the feast. I am not going up to this feast, for my time has not yet fully come.” 9 After saying this, he remained in Galilee. 10 But after his brothers had gone up to the feast, then he also went up, not publicly but in private. 11 The Jews were looking for him at the feast, and saying, “Where is he?” 12 And there was much muttering about him among the people. While some said, “He is a good man,” others said, “No, he is leading the people astray.” 13 Yet for fear of the Jews no one spoke openly of him.

John 7:3–13 (ESV)

In Exodus, we next find Moses turning to God in prayer, as he often did throughout the Old Testament.

22 Then Moses turned to the Lord and said, “O Lord, why have you done evil to this people? Why did you ever send me? 23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in your name, he has done evil to this people, and you have not delivered your people at all.”

Exodus 5:22–23 (ESV)

Jesus Christ often turned to His Father in prayer as well.

35 And rising very early in the morning, while it was still dark, he departed and went out to a desolate place, and there he prayed.

Mark 1:35 (ESV)

23 And after he had dismissed the crowds, he went up on the mountain by himself to pray. When evening came, he was there alone,

Matthew 14:23 (ESV)

16 But he would withdraw to desolate places and pray.

Luke 5:16 (ESV)

In Exodus, we find the Lord telling Moses to pass on the message that He would be the one to bring the people out of slavery.

6 Say therefore to the people of Israel, ‘I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from slavery to them, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great acts of judgment. 7 I will take you to be my people, and I will be your God, and you shall know that I am the Lord your God, who has brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

Exodus 6:6–7 (ESV)

In the New Testament, Paul tells us that Jesus Christ freed us from spiritual slavery through His death and resurrection.

1 For freedom Christ has set us free; stand firm therefore, and do not submit again to a yoke of slavery.

Galatians 5:1 (ESV)

As a minor rabbit hole before moving on, this passage in Exodus is played out in the Jewish Passover meal, with four cups representing the four “I will’s” that the Lord states.

  • Cup of Sanctification – “I will bring you out”
  • Cup of Plagues/Deliverance – “I will deliver you”
  • Cup of Redemption – “I will redeem you”
  • Cup of Praise/Restoration – “I will take you as my people”

We’ll take a deep-dive on the modern-day Passover meal at the end of Leviticus (if we ever get there, ha!), but for now let’s just take a minute to compare these cups to the Last Supper of Jesus Christ as found in the New Testament.  First, while there is some disagreement between scholars, it appears quite possible the Last Supper was a Passover meal.

14 And when the hour came, he reclined at table, and the apostles with him. 15 And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.

Luke 22:14–15 (ESV)

With that in mind, we see Jesus taking a cup at the meal, which seems most likely to match up with the third cup, that of redemption.  (The first two cups do not appear to be represented.)  Jesus Christ would redeem us with His shed blood on the cross.

27 And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all of you, 28 for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.

Matthew 26:27–28 (ESV)

Jesus then noted that He would not drink again until some time in the future.

29 I tell you I will not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”

Matthew 26:29 (ESV)

Jesus Christ will one day drink from the fourth cup, that of Praises/Restoration, perhaps at the marriage supper of the Lamb.

6 Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the roar of many waters and like the sound of mighty peals of thunder, crying out, “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns. 7 Let us rejoice and exult and give him the glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his Bride has made herself ready; 8 it was granted her to clothe herself with fine linen, bright and pure”— for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints. 9 And the angel said to me, “Write this: Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.” And he said to me, “These are the true words of God.”

Revelation 19:6–9 (ESV)

Ok, perhaps we’ll explore that Passover deep-dive further sometime next year. :)

Moving on with Exodus, we find Modes telling the people God was here to save them, but they wouldn’t listen and believe.

9 Moses spoke thus to the people of Israel, but they did not listen to Moses, because of their broken spirit and harsh slavery.

Exodus 6:9 (ESV)

In the New Testament, we find the Jewish leaders would not listen to and believe Jesus Christ was here to save His people.  They even got schooled on it by a once-blind man.

24 So for the second time they called the man who had been blind and said to him, “Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.” 25 He answered, “Whether he is a sinner I do not know. One thing I do know, that though I was blind, now I see.” 26 They said to him, “What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?” 27 He answered them, “I have told you already, and you would not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? Do you also want to become his disciples?”

John 9:24–27 (ESV)

Jesus Christ pointed out that His sheep knew His voice and would listen to Him and believe.

24 So the Jews gathered around him and said to him, “How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly.” 25 Jesus answered them, “I told you, and you do not believe. The works that I do in my Father’s name bear witness about me, 26 but you do not believe because you are not among my sheep. 27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me. 28 I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand.

John 10:24–28 (ESV)

Finally in Exodus, Moses was charged by God to set the people free.

13 But the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge about the people of Israel and about Pharaoh king of Egypt: to bring the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

Exodus 6:13 (ESV)

Jesus Christ was charged by God, as prophesied hundreds of years beforehand in the Old Testament, to set His people free as well.

16 And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. And as was his custom, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and he stood up to read. 17 And the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written, 18 “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, 19 to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” 20 And he rolled up the scroll and gave it back to the attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. 21 And he began to say to them, “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.”

Luke 4:16–21 (ESV)

In summary, we found the following in today’s chapters:

  • Exodus 5:1-2 – type/picture – Jesus Christ reveals God to those who do not know Him
  • Exodus 5:4-9 – type/picture – Jesus Christ gives us rest from our burdens (from our sins and from false, works-based religion)
  • Exodus 5:20-21 – type/picture – some Jews complained about the trouble Jesus Christ was causing
  • Exodus 5:22-23 – type/picture – Jesus Christ often turned to His Father in prayer
  • Exodus 6:6-7 – type/picture – Jesus Christ freed us from spiritual slavery
  • Exodus 6:9 – type/picture – Jewish leaders would not listen to or believe Jesus Christ, but His sheep would
  • Exodus 6:13 – type/picture – Jesus Christ was charged by God to set His people free

That’s it for today… catch you next time!

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Book reviews 4/21/14

Time again to review this stack of books I’ve read over the past several months so I can finally clear them off my desk to make room for more. :)

jesus_every_pageJesus on Every Page (David P. Murray)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

Given my long-term study here of Jesus in the Old Testament, I couldn’t resist picking up this book when I came across it.  I didn’t really catch much new that I hadn’t already in other studies, but I definitely think it would be a great book for anyone who wants a relatively condensed primer on how to see Jesus Christ throughout the entire Old Testament.  Just for a taste, here are the several categories he goes through in chapters throughout the book, titled “Discovering Jesus in…”

  • … the Creation
  • … the Old Testament Characters
  • … His Old Testament Appearances
  • … the Old Testament Law
  • … Old Testament History
  • … the Old Testament Prophets
  • … the Old Testament Types
  • … the Old Testament Covenants
  • … the Old Testament Proverbs
  • … the Old Testament Poems

Of course, checking that book out might also be a nice way to skip to the punchline in some areas and skip all my deep-dive blog posts.  Your call. :)

delighting_trinityDelighting in the Trinity (Michael Reeves)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

Here is another outstanding, relatively short book that is not only a primer on the Trinity, but really covers a great deal of material in an easier to read manner than other books on the nature of the one true God.  Reeves does justice to the study of the nature of God, turning what some see as a dry doctrinal subject into something we can simply dwell on and delight in.  I found some of the best parts to be the many sidetracks where he let us hear statements from several early church fathers as well as later reformers.  Another great, quick read you should check out.

christ_covenantsThe Christ of the Covenants (O. Palmer Robertson)

Rating: ★★★★☆ 

Robertson does a great job working his way through the various covenants throughout Scripture, explaining the distinctiveness of each while always pointing out the unity and continuity of God’s work throughout history.  He additionally throws in a nice chapter discussing dispensationalism and some of the issues with the theological system.  The reason I end up rating this four stars instead of five is that it felt a bit too meaty for much of the book on the earlier covenants, and then ended way too quickly with little material on the new covenant inaugurated with Jesus Christ.

killing_calvinismKilling Calvinism: How to Destroy a Perfectly Good Theology from the Inside (Greg Dutcher)

Rating: ★★★☆☆ 

At barely over 100 pages, this book is a quick read, but it felt like it glossed too much through the issues with Calvinism as it has resurged with the “young, restless, reformed” in recent past.  Much feels filled with caricatures of Calvinists, but it does have enough good points to make it worth the read.  A couple of the chapters I appreciated most were the ways we potentially kill Calvinism “By Loving God’s Sovereignty More Than God Himself” and “By Learning Only from Other Calvinists.”  Oh, and “By Being an Arrogant Know-It-All” had some good points, but I think hit too much on the caricature picture of Calvinists.  If you wanted to learn about various viewpoints on Calvinism, you would do much better with the next two books in my list.

for_calvinismagainst_calvinismFor Calvinism (Michael S. Horton)

Against Calvinism (Roger E. Olson)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

These two books discuss Calvinism in a thorough, yet nicely condensed manner.  They also do well to note the many differences between the modern caricature representations of both Calvinism and Arminianism vs. more historical and reasonable representations of the two sides of the theological spectrum.  Both authors seem to be gracious to the other sides of the argument, though I have to admit I found it quite tiring that Olson continually described the God of Calvinism a “moral monster.”  While I may not agree with all of Calvinist theology, the frequency of that statement pretty much defeated much of his attempts to carefully steer around the caricatures.  Regardless, if you are curious at all about the debate between the two theological systems, or often find yourself in the middle of the debate, definitely check them both out.

zions_sakeFor Zion’s Sake: Christian Zionism and the Role of John Nelson Darby (Paul Richard Wilkinson)

Rating: ★★★★☆ 

I’ve linked to a video of Wilkinson’s in a previous post on “Christian Palestinianism,” which I found to be very well done.  That video led me to check out this book, and due to it’s scholarly format (i.e., in-depth and meaty), it sat around quite a while.  I’m glad I finally braved through it, because it was very meaty on the history of the topic.  I had heard of Darby through previous studies of dispensationalism, but this book had far more on his life and in-depth discussions on other theologians throughout history, including their views of God’s plan for Israel as revealed in Scripture.  I would recommend checking out the video first, and then jump at the book only if that piques your curiosity for more information.

jacob_prodigalJacob and the Prodigal (Kenneth E. Bailey)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

I really enjoyed this book.  Bailey has a unique background in that he has spent much of his life living, teaching and travelling in the Middle East.  In his book, he works through Jesus’ parables in Luke 15, including the parable of the prodigal son.  Now, I thought I had heard it all when it comes to that parable, but Bailey’s perspective was definitely a unique one, especially when viewed alongside his discussion of the other parables in the chapter.  It was a joy to read the cultural background of the area as applied to Jesus’ parables.  This is another relatively short book and is a very easy and worthwhile read.

jesus_mideast_eyespaul_mideast_eyespoet_peasantJesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes, Paul Through Middle Eastern Eyes, Poet & Peasant, and Through Peasant Eyes (Kenneth E. Bailey)

Rating: ★★★★☆ 

I’m going to group these three books together as they are very similar.  In these books, Bailey continues to bring his unique perspective to bear on far more Scripture than the parables of Luke 15.  In the “Jesus” book, he covers areas such as Jesus’ birth, the Beatitudes and the Lord’s Prayer.  In the “Paul” book, he works his way through the entirety of 1 Corinthians.  In the third “two books in one,” Bailey covers much of the same ground as the prodigal book I reviewed above, though in more depth.  I would recommend you first read the prodigal book, and if you enjoy his style, move on to the Jesus book.  Only if you’re aching for more, or really want a decent 1 Corinthians commentary, go with the Paul book next.  Finally, I would actually skip the 2-in-1 book since it is much older material than his updated and nicely concise prodigal book.

dreams_visionsDreams and Visions: Is Jesus Awakening the Muslim World? (Tom Doyle)

Rating: ★★★★☆ 

We received this book from one of the missionary families we support, and I will admit I was a bit skeptical what I would find in here before reading.  Normally, I throw out most dream/vision material as possibly demonic in nature rather than from God, especially when you dig just a little under the surface and find things that conflict with God’s Word.  However, in this book, I was nicely surprised that the author provided a good amount of warning against that very thing when dealing with dream/visions.  Along with that, he documented many of those being seen by Muslims who are turning to Christ throughout the Middle East, making it clear that whether or not these are true ones from Jesus Christ, these people are at least turning dramatically to Him… which is the real importance of the events occurring there with increasing frequency.  I did find it interesting that some of these I had actually heard of before through Joel Rosenberg as well as a video from Iran Alive Ministries.

 

gleanings_genesisgleanings_exodusGleanings in Genesis, Gleanings in Exodus (Arthur W. Pink)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

Given my Jesus in the Old Testament study, Pink’s “Gleanings” resources have been priceless.  He has a great wealth of material within these commentaries focused on seeing Jesus Christ as the central figure of the entirety of Scripture.  While I don’t agree with all of his types of Jesus Christ found throughout Genesis and Exodus, I certainly would not have noticed as many in my personal studies that I do agree with.  I’m mentioning these now since I finally completed them as we’re already starting study of the book of Numbers this next weekend.  Perhaps one of these days I will mention all the other various books, including whole-Bible commentaries such as that of Matthew Henry, that are my go-to resources for Jesus in the Old Testament study since it will be years before I’m able to finish up.  We’ll see.  :)

feasts_lordThe Feasts of the Lord (Kevin Howard)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

Speaking of invaluable resources in my studies, Howard’s book was quite helpful in providing material beyond what I had gleaned via my own studies of the feasts laid out in Leviticus 23.  If you’ve never studied the Jewish feasts closely from the perspective of how Jesus Christ fulfills the spring feasts and how He will one day fulfill the fall feasts, you really owe it to yourself to dig further.  This would be a fantastic place to start, especially given it will probably be another year or so before I get to blogging that particular study!  :)

christ_passovermessianic_passoverpassover_haggadahChrist in the Passover (Rose Publishing)

Messianic Passover Haggadah (Barry Rubin)

Katz Passover Haggadah: The Art of Faith and Redemption (Baruch Chait)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

As part of our study through the feasts of Leviticus this winter and spring, our Bible study group decided I should perform a major deep-dive into Passover, especially given the approaching Easter season.  I was truly blessed by the study, and these are again three resources that proved priceless (in fact, the first two were quite cheap price-wise).  The first turned out to be a pamphlet on seeing Jesus Christ in the Passover tradition as well as what is found in actual Scripture.  It is small, but very worthwhile as an inexpensive primer on the subject.  The second was a small booklet, but was a great resource to guide one through a Messianic version of the Passover celebration (“Messianic” meaning taking the Jewish tradition and seeing how Jesus Christ shows up through and through).  The third was a resource to guide one through the modern traditional Jewish celebration, and yet one can still see glimpses of Jesus throughout.  The artwork of the Exodus story throughout was also very neat.  Let me know if you’re ever interested, and I will loan these out any time so you can explore the Passover celebration in-depth yourself… again, without having to wait another year for me to get around to blogging my research notes.  :)

tabernaclerose_guide_tabernacleThe Tabernacle: Shadows of the Messiah (Levy)

Rose Guide to the Tabernacle (Rose Publishing)

Rating: ★★★★★ 

Finally we come to two resources that were greatly helpful in my studies of the Tabernacle during the Exodus study of Jesus in the Old Testament.  These proved valuable in covering all the ways Jesus Christ is the true Tabernacle and how that tent of meeting in the wilderness looked forward to Him.  My friend, Bruce Shauger, provided me with a presentation including much material that was also invaluable as well, though I can’t really send you to a Goodreads.com link for his material.  :)

Well, thanks for slogging through another set of book reviews with me.  I hope you find something here you might be interested in.  Most of these I will be keeping around, so let me know if you want to borrow any!  Until next time.

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Periodic ramblings by an old geek…